> ATERA – Full-Thickness Skin

The ATERA Reconstructed Human Full-Thickness (RHFT) skin model features morphological equivalence with human skin and allows convenient handling in research applications.

Comparable to human skin, the RHFT consists of a dermal and epidermal layer that are connected by a functional basement membrane. The dermal layer is generated by seeding human primary fibroblasts into a high-density collagen matrix. As such the cells behave in a microenvironment comparable to the human dermis. In addition, human epidermal keratinocytes are seeded on top of the dermal matrix. Due to a special serum free tissue culture medium and the cultivation at the air-liquid interface, the epidermal cells differentiate and form a well stratified epidermis featuring a natural barrier function. As the full thickness skin model shows a high correlation to the in vivo human skin with only minimum signs of contraction, it is applicable for a variety of testing applications including complex toxicological endpoints such as genotoxicity testing or efficacy testing of pharmacological and cosmetic formulations. Additionally, the non-contracting human full-thickness skin model can also be used for cutaneous wound healing assays.

Culture

The ATERA – Full-Thickness skin model is cultured at the air-liquid-interface for 11 days in standard tissue culture inserts. The model has constant surface area of 1 cm² allowing direct and easy substance application. Compared to other collagen-based skin models, ATERA RHFT shows much lower contraction and weight loss over time and therefore allows measuring trans-epithelial electrical resistance, indicative for skin barrier function.

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Histology

The ATERA – Full-Thickness skin model resembles native human skin in its histological architecture as well as in displaying a wide spectrum of corresponding physiological parameters.

Atera Skin Models RHFT

Figure 1: The models are cultured in standard cell culture inserts and have a surface area of 1 cm² (A). In contrast to standard RHFTs the ATERA RHFT model shows an increased mechanical stability (B). Due to the culture at the air-liquid-interface (C) primary keratinocytes differentiate physiologically and form all epidermal layers as in native skin (D). SEM Images of the RHFT model compared to conventional collagen model (E) showed the intact collagen ultrastructure in both images, with a higher number of collagen fibers in the ATERA model. SC: Stratum corneum; SG: Stratum granulosum; SS: Stratum spinosum; SB: Stratum basale; DL: Dermal layers; RHFT models marked with arrowheads

The ATERA – Full-Thickness skin model can be used for a broad range of endpoints in safety and efficacy testing including e.g. genotoxicity, efficacy testing and wound healing. Besides the possibility to topically challenge the model with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances and formulations, hydrophilic substances can also be added to the basolateral compartment to mimic systemic application scenarios.

To ensure reproducible results for our customers, high quality control standards are employed. All cell batches used for tissue reconstruction are tested before use for Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, and Mycoplasma.

Quality criterion Used assay Acceptance limit
Tissue morphology H&E staining
  • Well defined epidermal layer with 1 layer of basal cells, 2 to 4 layers of stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum and a corneous layer without cell nuclei.
  • Consistent dermal layer with homogenously distributed fibroblasts
Barrier function ImpSpec  Impedance above 500 Ohm*cm²

Contact information

To order the ATERA – Full-Thickness skin model please contact us under:
Phone : +33 6 87 21 40 68 and: +33 6 81 64 24 75 or e-mail on our contact page

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Available models

Besides the standard ATERA – RHE, additional model types can be ordered that vary in the culture period and surface area, depending on the specific needs.

Model Day of culture Surface area Reference number
ATERA RHFT 12 days 1.1 cm2 ASMFT-11
ATERA RHFT 7 8 days 1.1 cm2 ASMFT-7
ATERA RHD 7 days 1.1 cm2 ASMD-7

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Conditions of order

Tissue culture medium is provided free of charge for 5 days of tissue culture. In case a prolonged culture period is required, additional tissue growth medium can be purchased. Minimum number of models to be orders is 12 models. The minimum order size of culture medium is 60 ml.

> ATERA – epiCS Reconstructed Human Epidermis

The ATERA – Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) epiCS®* consists of normal human-derived keratinocytes cultured for 14 days at the air-liquid interface, resulting in a multilayered epidermal equivalent in vitro that is histological similar to the human epidermis. The ATERA – RHE epiCS® is characterized by a high barrier function and metabolic activity and can be employed for safety and efficacy testing of chemicals and final formulations. To ensure global availability, epidermis models are transported on an agarose-based solidified medium together with ATERA – Tissue Culture Medium.

* epiCS® is a registered trade mark of CellSystems® GmbH, Germany

Culture

The ATERA – RHE epiCS® is generated from normal human keratinocytes isolated from foreskin. Following an in vitro expansion step that allows the production of large quantities of epidermal models from the same donor, epidermal cells are seeded on a synthetic carrier membrane and lifted at the air-liquid interface. Due to proprietary cell culture conditions, combined with the use of a proprietary serum-free tissue culture medium, a natural differentiation process is triggered and a multilayered epidermis is formed. In the standard configuration, ATERA – RHE epiCS® models are obtained under these conditions after 14 days of culture. However, depending on the testing application, the ATERA – RHE epiCS® can also be provided at a younger age, i.e. at day 7.
Standard ATERA – RHE epiCS® can be cultured for up to 2 weeks and is supplied in a 24-well plate format.

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Histology

The ATERA – RHE epiCS® reflects the histological architecture of human epidermis. Besides a basal, spinous and granular layer, a multilayered stratum corneum is formed that is responsible for a natural barrier function. Moreover, the basal cell layer exhibits a natural cubic formation.

 

Figure 1: Histological and phase contrast images of the ATERA - RHE epiCS®

Figure 1: Histological and phase contrast images of the ATERA – RHE epiCS®


Figure 2: Immunohistology Keratin14 image of the ATERA - RHE epiCS® Figure 3: Immunohistology Keratin10 image of the ATERA - RHE epiCS®

Figure 2 (left): Immunohistology Keratin14 image of the ATERA – RHE epiCS®
Figure 3 (right): Immunohistology Keratin10 image of the ATERA – RHE epiCS®

The ATERA – RHE epiCS® can be employed to test the safety and efficacy of chemicals, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical compounds. Due to a dry surface, epiCS® allows realistic topical application scenarios for a broad range of liquid and solid substances. Moreover, a systemic application can be simulated by applying test substances directly into the culture medium underneath the tissue models.

Instruction sheet

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Safety

Test method Regulatory framework
Skin corrosion OECD TG 431
Skin irritation Comparable to test methods within OECD TG 439
Genotoxicity
Phototoxicity
Cytotoxicity
Skin Sensitisation Skin Sensitisation and Potency Test SSPT INVITTOX Protocol

 

Skin Corrosion and Irritation Testing with ATERA – RHE epiCS® :

  • epiCS® is validated for the classification of compounds according to the OECD Test Guideline 431 « In Vitro Skin Corrosion: Human Skin Model Test ». The European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing (EURL-ECVAM) has accepted this method to be used for distinguishing between non-corrosive and corrosive chemicals sub-categorized as 1A and 1B/C corrosive chemicals.
  • EURL-ECVAM Scientific Advisory Committee (ESAC) Statement : CellSystems has carried out a multi-centre validation study for the epiCS® Skin Irritation Test (SIT) according to OECD Test Guideline 439. The ESAC opinion stating the validity of the method was published in 2016. Listing of the epiCS® -SIT method in the OECD Test Guideline 439 is expected.

For training or quality assurance purposes, ATERA proposes its clients epiCS® validation certification. ATERA – RHE epiCS® Certification Study Corrosion and ATERA – RHE epiCS® Certification Study Irritation are inter-laboratory studies whereby the corrosive or irritative potential of blinded test substances are determined simultaneously in your facility and CellSystems DIN ISO 9001:2008 certified laboratories.
A special ATERA – RHE epiCS® Corrosion Validation Kit is available for such certification study containing 36 epidermis models, cell culture and assay medium, blinded test substances, culture plates, testing service and certification. Half of the kit material will be delivered to your laboratory; the other half will be used at CellSystems’ R&D department for parallel testing. Additionally an epiCS® Skin Irritation Validation Kit is avaluable containing 18 epidermis models, cell culture and assay medium, blinded test substances, culture plates, testing service and certification. Half of the kit material will be delivered to your laboratory; the other half will be used at CellSystems’ R&D department for parallel testing.
To identify direct MTT reducers according to OECD Test Guideline 439, ATERA – RHE epiCS® frozen tissues are also available.

Skin Sensitisation Testing with ATERA – RHE epiCS® :
To identify skin sensitisers and to rank sensitisers according to their potency, the epiCS® Skin Sensitisation and Potency Test (SSPT) was developed. The assay is based on viability measurement (MTT-Assay) combined with the detection of interleukin-18 secretion. The ATERA – epiCS®-SSPT can be used for water soluble, for mixtures, insoluble and possibly particulate substances and substances.

The assay is easy to perform and results strongly correlate with LLNA and human DSA data (Teunis et. al. ALTEX, 31: 251-268; 2014). Currently the epiCS®-SSPT method is part of a multi-centre international validation study.
To get familiar with the test system, an ATERA- epiCS® SSPT Training kit is proposed. The kit contains all essential components to carry out the test method: a sensitizing chemical, a non-sensitizing chemical, the IL-18 ELISA kit, solvents, media and filter discs.

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Efficacy

Test method
Anti-oxidative capacity
Anti-inflammatory activity
Hydration
Anti-aging
Epidermal differentiation
Percutaneous absorption
Effects of UVA and UVB irradiation
Sub-clinical irritation
UVB protection
Genomic signatures
Wound healing
Epidermal barrier function
Epidermal permeability and metabolism

Scientific

Several scientific references for efficacy, bioavailability, phototoxicity, genotoxicity using ATERA – RHE epiCS® are available here:

2003 Determination of Phototoxicity properties of different compounds using a Full Thickness Skin Model

2003 Genotoxicity of Textile Dyestuffs in Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes and a Three Dimensional Reconstituted

2004 Closing the Gap EST1000 a new reconstructed epidermis for dermatological and pharmaceutical research

2006 From Skin Corrosion to Skin Irritation – Epidermal Skin Test 1000 (EST-1000)

2008 Detecting the skin penetration potential of new pharmacological compounds for acne therapy

2008 In vitro Differentiation of Skin Sensitizers by Cell Signaling Pathways

2008 In Vitro reconstructed human skin- and epidermal models as potent screening and research tools for Phototoxicity

2008 Phototoxicity in vitro Investigation of photoreactions in the skin using the reconstructed epidermis Epidermal Skin Test

2011 Comparative Investigation of Phototoxicity of Chemical Compounds by a Three-Dimensional Human Skin Model (EST 1000)

2011 Use of three dimensional skin models for estimation of genotoxic effects in an automated assay

2012 In vitro skin corrosion testing according to UN-GHS sub-categorization using EST1000

2013 An Epidermal Equivalent Assay for identification and ranking potency of contact sensitizer

2014 Corrosion epiCS – How can changes in predictions models improve final predictions

2014 Sensitisation epiCS – A highly differentiated 3D epidermal skin model (epiCS) to characterize skin sensitizers in mixtures

2014 Sub-categorization of dermal corrosives in vitro %0Busing the reconstructed human skin model epiCS

2015  A Human Keratinocyte Tissue Model Differentiates between Phototoxicity and Direct Skin Toxicity, L. Mueller, A. Herrmann; Th

2015 Abstract Sensitisation Dermal sensitizers – identification and potency ranking unsing IVSA and epiCS

2015 Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RhE) Monitoring via the IMOLA-IVD, EUSAAT abstract

2015 Sensitisation Potency Ranking of Dermal Sensitizing Chemicals Using the IVSA and epiCS Skin Tissue

2016 Skin Care Product Applied onto an in vitro Epidermis Model for Dry Skin. Electron microscopical insight, ESDR

 

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Regulatory

  • Epidermal-skin-test 1000 (EST-1000)—A new reconstructed epidermis for in vitro skin corrosivity testing. J.Hoffmann, E.Heisler, S.Karpinski, J.Losse, D.Thomas, W.Siefken, H.-J. Ahr, H.-W. Vohr, H.W. Fuchs. Toxicology in Vitro 19 (2005) 925–929
  • An epidermal equivalent assay for identification and ranking potency of contact sensitizers. Susan Gibbs, Emanuela Corsini, Sander W. Spiekstra, Valentina Galbiati, HorstW. Fuchs, George DeGeorge, Matthew Troese, Patrick Hayden, Wei Deng, Erwin Roggen. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 272 (2013) 529–541
  • International Ring Trial of the Epidermal Equivalent Sensitizer Potency Assay: Reproducibility and Predictive Capacity. Marc A. T. Teunis, Sander W. Spiekstra, Mieke Smits, Els Adriaens, Tobias Eltze, Valentina Galbiati, Cyrille Krul, Robert Landsiedel, Raymond Pieters, Judith Reinders, Erwin Roggen, Emanuela Corsini. Susan Gibbs. Altex 31 (2014) 251-268 http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1308021
  • Two novel prediction models improve predictions of skin corrosive sub-categories by test methods of OECD Test Guideline No. 431; Bertrand Desprez, João Barroso, Claudius Griesinger, Helena Kandárová, Nathalie Alépée, Horst W. Fuchs. Toxicology in Vitro 29 (2015) 2055–2080

The production of the ATERA – RHE epiCS® is performed at CellSystems, Troisdorf, Germany. To ensure reproducible results, high quality standards are employed. CellSystems laboratory facilities are DIN ISO 9001:2008 certified for skin model production and testing services. All cell batches used for tissue reconstruction are tested before use for Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV1 (PCR test method), bacteria, yeast and mycoplasma (sterility test). The barrier function is tested on each tissue batch by topical application of the cytotoxic benchmark chemical Triton X-100 1% for 2 hours. In addition, morphology is controlled on each tissue batch. Only epiCS® tissue batches that comply with internal quality criteria listed below for the standards ATERA – RHE epiCS® are released for commercialization:

Quality criterion Used assay Acceptance limit
Barrier function MTT reduction (% viability) 2h >50%
Morphology Histology  Natural differentiated epidermis with:

  • 4 viable cell layers composed of distinct basal layer, spinous and granular layers
  • A thick corneous layer (5 layers)

Contact information

To order the ATERA – RHE epiCS® please contact us by:
Phone : +33 6 87 21 40 68 and: +33 6 81 64 24 75 or e-mail on our contact page

 

After receipt of an order, tissue models will be shipped at the latest 4 weeks later, however depending on the number of tissues ordered, shipment can be performed within 1 or 2 weeks. Tissue models are shipped on Mondays and delivered overnight using specialized international couriers (TNT or others).

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Available models and products

Besides the standard ATERA – RHE epiCS®, additional tissue model types and products are available:

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Model Day of culture Surface area Reference number
ATERA RHE Standard epiCS® 14 days 0.6 cm2 ASME1406
ATERA RHE 7 epiCS® 7 days 0.6 cm2 ASME0706
ATERA Frozen RHE epiCS® 14 days 0.6 cm2 ASMFE1406

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Products Number Unit Reference number
ATERA epiCS® Validation Study Corrosion epiCS® 1 Kit ASMVSC
ATERA epiCS® Validation Study Corrosion Additional participant 1 Kit ASMVSCA
ATERA epiCS® Validation Study Irritation 1 Kit ASMVSI
ATERA epiCS® Validation Study Irritation Additional participant 1 Kit ASMVSIA
epiCS® MTT Assay Medium 1 25 ML ASMAM25
epiCS® MTT Assay Medium 1 50 ML ASMAM50
epiCS® Culture Medium 1 50 ML ASMAM50
epiCS® Culture Medium 1 75 ML ASMCM75
epiCS® Culture Medium 1 100 ML ASMCM100
epiCS® Culture Medium 1 125 ML ASMCM125
Nylon Meshes 12 0.6 cm2 ASMNM
Skin Sensitization and Potency Test Method 1 Kit ASMSSPT

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Conditions of order

Tissue culture medium for at least 3 medium changes, MTT-Assay medium and 6-well culture plates are provided free of charge. In case a prolonged culture period is needed, additional tissue growth medium can be ordered. The standard “minimum order size” is 12 tissue models, however an order size between 6 and 12 tissue models is also possible.

> ATERA – Reconstructed Human Pigmented Epidermis epiCS®-M

The ATERA – Reconstructed Human Pigmented Epidermis (RHPE) epiCS®*-M consists of normal human-derived keratinocytes and melanocytes cultured for 7 days at the air-liquid interface. This results in a multilayered epidermal equivalent in vitro that is histological similar to human epidermis including a functional pigmentation system, as demonstrated by an active melanin transfer from melanocytes to the surrounding keratinocytes which is required for skin photoprotection. ATERA – RHPE epiCS®-M of different phototypes from e.g. Asian-Caucasian, Caucasian or Afro-American donors can be produced. Depending on the testing application ATERA – RHPE epiCS®-M models are available of different phototypes ranging from light pigmentation to heavy pigmentation.

Figure 1 : Development of melanogenesis

Figure 1 : Development of melanogenesis

The ATERA – RHPE epiCS®-M is characterized by a normal barrier function and skin metabolism activity, and can be used for efficacy testing e.g. in vitro pigmentation or depigmentation studies. To ensure global availability, the ATERA – RHPE epiCS®-M models are transported on an agarose based solidified medium together with ATERA – Culture Medium. The ATERA – RHPE epiCS®-M can be cultured for up to 4 weeks i.e. 3 weeks following shipment. Most frequently, a 2 week culture is performed followed by tissue analysis.
* epiCS® is a registered trade mark of CellSystems® GmbH, Germany

Culture

The ATERA – RHPE epiCS®-M is generated from normal human keratinocytes and melanocytes isolated from skin biopsies. Following an in vitro expansion step that allows the production of numerous models from one donor, cells are seeded on a synthetic carrier membrane and are lifted to the air-liquid interface. Due to the company’s proprietary tissue culture conditions including the use of a special serum-free medium, the natural differentiation of the keratinocytes is triggered resulting in the formation of a multilayered epidermis. Additionally, the melanocytes form dendritic extensions that connect with the surrounding keratinocytes forming functional epidermal-melanin units. In the standard configuration the ATERA – RHPE epiCS®-M models are cultured for 7 days.

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Histology

The ATERA – RHPE epiCS®-M feature the histological architecture of human pigmented epidermis. Both basal, spinous and granular layers covered by a multilayered stratum corneum are formed resulting in a normal epidermal barrier function. Typically, the basal cells exhibit a natural cubic formation and are connected with the surrounding melanocytes also located in the basal layer. Using melanin specific staining methods, active melanin synthesis and transfer to neighboring keratinocytes is demonstrated.

epics-M_bild1

The ATERA – RHPE epiCS®-M can be used to test the pigmentation or depigmentation efficacy of chemicals, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical compounds. The Asian-Caucasian and Caucasian models are generally used to assess UV- or chemically induced-pigmentation. The Afro-American model is mainly used to assess the whitening potential of chemicals or skin care formulations. Due to a dry surface, the ATERA – RHPE epiCS®-M models allow realistic topical application scenarios for a broad range of liquid and solid substances. Moreover, a systemic application can be simulated by applying test substances into the culture medium underneath the tissue models.

Efficacy

Test method
Pigmentation activity
Depigmentation activity
UV effects

 

Instruction sheet

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The production of the ATERA – RHE epiCS-M® is performed at CellSystems, Troisdorf, Germany. To ensure reproducible results, high quality standards are employed. CellSystems laboratory facilities are DIN ISO 9001:2008 certified for skin model production and testing services. All cell batches used for tissue reconstruction are tested before use for Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV1 (PCR test method), bacteria, yeast and mycoplasma (sterility test). In addition, morphology, metabolic activity and pigmentation are controlled on each tissue batch. Only epiCS-M® tissue batches that comply with internal quality criteria for the standards ATERA – RHE epiCS-M® are released for commercialization.

Contact information

To order the ATERA – RHE epiCS® please contact us by:
Phone : +33 6 87 21 40 68 and: +33 6 81 64 24 75 or e-mail on our contact page

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Available models and products

After receipt of an order, tissue models will be shipped at the latest 4 weeks later, however depending on the number of tissues ordered, shipment can be performed within 1 or 2 weeks. Tissue models are shipped on Mondays and delivered overnight using specialized international couriers (TNT or others).

 

Model Phototype Surface area Reference number
ATERA RHPE AC Asian-Caucasian 0.6 cm2 ASMPEAC06
ATERA RHPE C Caucasian 0.6 cm2 ASMPEC06
ATERA RHPE AA Afro-American 0.6 cm2 ASMPEAA06

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Products Number Unit Reference number
epiCS®-M Culture Medium 125 ml ASMM125
epiCS®-M Culture Medium 500 ml ASMM500
epiCS®-M LowTan Culture Medium 125 ml ASMMLT125
epiCS®-M LowTan Culture Medium 500 ml ASMMLT500

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Conditions of order

Tissue Culture Medium for 14 days of culture and 6 well culture plates are provided free of charge. In case a prolonged culture period is needed, additional tissue growth medium can be ordered. The standard “minimum order size” is 12 tissue models.

> ATERA – Vascularized Skin Model Skin-VaSc-TERM®

The Skin-VaSc-TERM® is an advanced human skin model, consisting of dermal and epidermal part with a perfused vascular network in vitro closely resembling native human skin. The model was developed by Florian Groeber and Heike Walles of the Fraunhofer ISC and is available for advanced testing applications at ATERA. To generate the vascularized skin equivalent, skin-specific cells, such as primary human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, are seeded into the so called biological vascularized scaffold, known as BioVaSc-TERM®. As a unique feature, the BioVaSc-TERM® allows the additional seeding of primary human microvascular endothelial cells into the vasculature structures within the BioVaSc-TERM®. The matrix is then placed in a bioreactor system that is capable of perfusing the vasculature of the Skin-VaSc-TERM® and to culture the model at the air-liquid interface. Due to the perfusion of the vasculature, the endothelium is cultured under physiological conditions and different cell types such as immune cells can be introduced in the skin model. Thereby the Skin-VaSc-TERM® can be used as a model system in various skin diseases, in which the interplay between the immune system and the endothelium is vital.

Please note that the human skin vascularized skin equivalent is not available for sale and only proposed for R&D including safety assessment and efficacy testing.

General characteristics

The vascularized skin model has a surface area of 2 x 4 cm² and is fixed in a polycarbonate frame that is placed in a custom bioreactor system. For experimental studies, test products can be applied topically on the epidermal skin surface or systemically through the vasculature system. Moreover, the experimental setting allows sampling from the vasculature or the basolateral side. Thus, multiple application scenarios are possible depending on the scientific question. As an advantage to other currently available full thickness skin models, the unique physiological collagen composition of the SkinVaSc-TERM® allows long term stability of the model and thus testing strategies over several weeks.

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Epidermis

The surface of the model is covered homogenously by a well-stratified epidermal layer. Within the epidermis, keratinocytes differentiate naturally and form a clear stratum basale (SB), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum granulosum (SG) and stratum corneum (SC). Moreover, keratinocytes express differentiation markers such as cytokeratin 10 (CK-10), cytokeratin 14 (CK-14), Filaggrin (Filagg.) and Involucrin (Invol.) comparable to human skin.

 

Vascularized-Skin-Model-Skin-VaSc-TERM-1

Figure 1: Schematic of the generation process of the vascularized skin model.

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Vasculature

Within the dermal part (D) clear vascular structures can be seen that form a highly branched network. During culture these vessels are perfused with culture medium with a physiological pulsatile pressure profile between 80 and 120 mmHg. Histological analysis revealed that the vessels are lined with a single layer of endothelial cells that express PECAM-1 and von Willebrand Factor (vWF).

Vascularized-Skin-Model-Skin-VaSc-TERM-2

Figure 2: Characterization of the vascularized skin model using histology (H&E), immunostaining and MTT staining.

Depending on the applications a wide variety of test methods can be employed for the analysis. These methods include non-destructive impedance measurements (ImpSpec), histology, protein quantitation, immuno-labelling and/or gene expression at different time points depending on specific needs.

Additionally the model can be adapted to answer specific scientific questions e.g. the interaction with other cell types such as melanoma cells, immune cells or microorganisms.

Scientific

Groeber F. et al.
A bioreactor system for interfacial culture and physiological perfusion of vascularized tissue equivalents.
Biotechnol J. 2013. doi: 10.1002/biot.201200160

Groeber F. et al.
A first vascularized skin equivalent for as an alternative to animal experimentation
ALTEX. 2016 May 15. doi: 10.14573/altex.1604041

To ensure reproducible results, high quality control standards are employed. All cell batches used for tissue reconstruction are tested before use for Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, and Mycoplasma.

Quality criterion Used assay Acceptance limit
Absence of contamination PCR Absence of:

  • Hepatitis C
  • Hepatitis B
  • HIV
  • Mycoplasma
Impedance Ohm*cm² 500
Epidermal Morphology Histology Natural differentiated epidermis with:

  • A distinct basal layer
  • 2-3 spinous layers
  • 2-3 granular layers and
  • A thick corneous layer
Dermal Morphology Histology Presence of fibroblasts in connective tissue component
Vasculature Morphology Histology Single cell layer covering the vessel inner walls

Contact information

To order a research study using the ATERA – Skin-VaSc-TERM® please contact us by:
Phone : +33 6 87 21 40 68 and: +33 6 81 64 24 75 or e-mail on our contact page

> ATERA – epiCS-FT: Reconstructed human full-thickness skin

More information will be available soon.