“Open Source” Based Engineered Human Tissue Models

Today, engineered three-dimensional tissue models from human cells of the skin, cornea, mucosa, and respiratory tract are widely used in pharmaceutical, chemical, consumer, and cosmetic industries as alternatives to animal testing. The currently available scientifically valid 3D tissue-engineered models, however, are protected by patents and/or are being commercialized using proprietary tissue culture procedures owned by only a few private companies.